Recommendations For Travelers
The following vaccines
should be reviewed with a health care provider as far in advance of travel as possible to
ensure the proper scheduling of recommended vaccines.
For travelers over 2
years of age the following immunizations normally given during childhood should be up
Children over 2 should
with each vaccines primary-series schedule, while adults should have completed the
primary series. The number of doses needed depends on the childs age. If you are
unsure about your vaccine history, consult with your physician.
In addition, adult
travelers may want to consider:
Tetanus and diphtheria
Yellow fever vaccine is recommended if traveling to certain parts of Africa and South America. Hepatitis B vaccine should be considered for those who will live 6 months or more in areas where there are high rates of hepatitis B (Southeast Asia, Africa [Southern, Central, East, West, and North], the Middle East, the islands of the South and Western Pacific, and the Amazon region of South America), and who will have frequent close contact with the local population. Children who have not previously received hepatitis B vaccine should be vaccinated. In general, hepatitis A vaccine and/or immune globulin (IG) is recommended for travelers to all areas EXCEPT Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Northern and Western Europe and North America (excluding Mexico). Typhoid vaccine is recommended for travelers spending time in areas where food and water precautions are recommended (including many parts of the world, especially developing countries). Meningococcal vaccine is recommended for travelers to sub-Saharan Africa (see map) during the dry season, which is from December through June, and especially if close contact with locals is anticipated. Japanese encephalitis or tick-borne encephalitis vaccines should be considered for long-term travelers to areas of risk. The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that it is questionable whether cholera vaccine is of benefit.
All vaccines (except cholera
and yellow fever vaccines) may be safely administered simultaneously without any decrease
in effectiveness. Immune globulin (IG) may be simultaneously administered at
different body locations with an inactivated vaccine such as DTaP, IPV, Hib, and
hepatitis A and B vaccines. However, IG diminishes the effectiveness of
live-virus MMR and varicella vaccines if IG is given simultaneously. IG
does not interfere with either OPV or yellow fever vaccine when given
Women who are pregnant or who are likely to become pregnant within 3 months should not receive MMR or varicella vaccines. Yellow fever or polio (OPV) vaccines should be given to pregnant women only if there is a substantial risk of exposure. If given during pregnancy, waiting until the second or third trimester minimizes theoretical concerns over possible birth defects.
Women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy have been found to be at increased risk of complications from influenza. Because currently available influenza vaccine is an inactivated vaccine, many experts consider influenza vaccination safe during any stage of pregnancy. A study of influenza vaccination of more than 2,000 pregnant women demonstrated no adverse fetal affects associated with influenza vaccine. However, more data are needed. Some experts prefer to administer influenza vaccine during the second trimester to avoid a coincidental association with spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), which is common in the first trimester, and because exposures to vaccines have traditionally been avoided during this time.
No convincing evidence for risk to the unborn baby from inactivated viral or bacterial vaccines or toxoids administered to pregnant women has been documented. These vaccines include: hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies, injectable typhoid, meningococcal, pneumococcal, tetanus-diphtheria toxoid (adult formulation), and IPV. Immune globulin can be given to pregnant women. Specific information is not available on the safety of cholera vaccine during pregnancy; therefore, it is prudent on theoretical grounds to avoid vaccinating pregnant women.
All vaccines may be
administered safely to children of pregnant women and to breast-feeding mothers.
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